What is quantum computer?
“Quantum computing is the use of quantum phenomena such as superposition and entanglement to perform computation. Computers that perform quantum computation is known as Quantum computer.
Google released it’s first quantumcomputer back in 2018. This will create a new extent in the field of computing. Moreover, they are trusted to be able to work out definite computational and simulation problems, such as integer factorization significantly faster than classical computers. So how this computers are so powerful than the other classical computers.
Following are some advantages of quantum computer.
- Physically scalable to increase the number of qubits.
- Gets very high processing speed
- It has includes efficient parallel processing capabilities
- Can process a large amount of data as fast as possible.
- They can perform intensive simulation more quickly.
- One should Accelerated machine learning.
- With quantum tunneling it gets lower power consumption than other computers.
Here is a type of quantum computers available:
Out of this computer most widely used in market is quantum circuit. That is based on the quantum bit, or “qubit”, which is somewhat analogous to the bit in classical computation.
Lets make it simple, on the other language these qubits are fundamentally electrons. Now as we study in secondary school that electron have spins, positive and negative. Electrons are sub-atomic particles and they follow the laws of quantum mechanics. Thus, they can exist in more than multiple states of spin ate the same time by the law of superposition. So that the qubit have values 0 and 1 but along with that, they also can chose a value between 0 and 1. This is what allows the quantum computer such high processing power.
On the other hand on classical computer this “qubits” are call “bits”. That is basically a presence of the electric current. On the simple way, if there is electric current flowing on the device it is represent as 1 and no current is represent as 0. Moreover, these bits are then process and decode whenever you need them. Additionally, a typical classic computer has millions of tiny nano scale transistors on its process. On the other hand the number of qubits on such a processor is less than 100, compare to classic computer.
Furthermore, there is also a one disadvantage to preserve this state of electron, they can be cool down to 4 degree temperature. Thus, they used liquid helium to cool down these super computers.
Followings are the terms you want to ask from the upper paragraphs.
What is a called “qubit”?
Today’s classical computers are simply use a “bits”. Thay used a topic of electric or optical pulse representing 1 and 0. Everything from you text to Mail to your music song and many others are basically long rope of these digits.
On the other hand, Quantum computers are use “qubits”. On the other language these qubits are fundamentally electrons or photons. So that the qubit have values 0 and 1 but along with that, they also can chose a value between 0 and 1. This is what allows the quantum computer such high processing power. Additionally, some companies like IBM, Google, and Rigetti Computing, use superconducting circuits cooled to temperatures. Others like IonQ, trap individual atoms in electromagnetic fields on a silicon chip in ultra-high-vacuum chambers. In both cases, the goal is to isolate the qubits in a controlled quantum state.
Furthermore, qubits have some unusual quantum properties that mean a connected group of them can provide way more processing power than the same number of binary bits. However, one of those properties is known as superposition and another is called entanglement.
What is a superposition?
The qubit have values 0 and 1 but along with that, they also can choose a value between 0 and 1. This ability to at the same time be in multiple states is called 2superposition”. Moreover, to set qubits into this superposition, researchers control them using precision lasers or microwave beams.
However, this unreasonable occurence, a quantum computer with several qubits in superposition can bite through a huge number of possible end results the same time. The final result of a calculation appear only once the qubits are measured, which strait away root their quantum state to “collapse” to such 1 or 0.
What is a entanglement?
Developers can generate couple of qubits that are “entangled” thus the two members of a pair exist in a single quantum state. However, if you change the qubits will automatically change the state of the other one in a expectd way. This happens even if they are separatE by very long distances.
However, in actual practice no one really knows quite how entanglement works. In a conventional computers, increasing the number of bits also increasing its processing power. But thanks to entanglement, adding extra qubits to a quantum machine produces an exponential increase in its number-crunching ability.
Quantum computers tackle entangled qubits in a type of quantum chain to work their witchcraft. Moreover, the machines ability to speed up calculations using specially design quantum algorithms is why there’s so much buzz about their potential.
But one disadvantage is that quantum machines are way more error-prone than classical computers because of decoherence.
What is a decoherence?
The exchange of qubits with their surroundings in ways that cause their quantum habits to decompose and ultimately fade away is called decoherence. Their quantum state is tremendously breakable. The modest vibration or change in contrary—distraction known as “noise” in quantum-speak—can cause them to fall down of superposition before their job has been properly done. That’s why experimenter do their best to protect qubits from the surface world in those supercooled fridges and vacuum chambers.
But despite their efforts, noise still causes lots of errors to crawl into calculations. Smart quantum algorithms can pay back for some of these and adding more qubits also helps. But it will likely grab thousands of standard qubits to create a single, extremely reliable one, known as a “logical” qubit. This will erode a lot of a quantum computer’s arithmetic volume.
However, there’s one problem, experimenter haven’t been able to create more than 128 standard qubits. Thus we’re still years away from getting quantum computers that will be useful.
That hasn’t reduce setters’ hopes of being the first to display “quantum supremacy.”
What is a quantum supremacy?
It’s the position at which a quantum computer can complete a numerical calculation that is sustainable beyond the reach of even the most powerful supercomputer.
Moreover, it’s still not found that exactly how many qubits will be requir to create this because experimenter continue finding a new conclusion to boost the performance of classical machines, and supercomputing equipment keeps getting superior.
There’s enough discussion in the investigation world about how not-worthy bring off this landmark will be. Rather than wait for supremacy to be declare, companies are already starting to investigate with quantum computers made by companies like IBM, Rigetti, and D-Wave, a Canadian firm. Chinese firms like Alibaba are also offering access to quantum machines. Some businesses are buying quantum computers, while others are using ones made available through cloud computing services.
Where is a quantum computer mostly use?
- Auto manufacturers like Volkswagen and Daimler are using quantum computers to simulate the chemical composition of electrical-vehicle batteries to help find new ways to improve their performance.
- The machines are also great for optimization problems because they can crunch through vast numbers of potential solutions extremely fast.
- The pharmaceutical companies are purchase them to examine and constract compounds which could lead to the making of new drugs.
- Some researchers also think the machines could be use to accelerate artificial intelligence.
- Airbus, for instance, is using them to help calculate the most fuel-efficient ascent and descent paths for aircraft.