How does the wireless technology works? advantage and disadvantage.

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People are working with wired or wireless technology in this 21ST century. Now a days, wireless technology is more used than the old wired.

Wireless network or WLAN [wireless local area network], we called it differently but the purpose is same. The main difference between wired or wireless technology is that the wireless network does not require wire to connect with other devices. Which makes it easier to use and also cost effective.

However, building a network with wires all around the wall or other places can be more costly. The people intentionally used wireless network over the wired now a days to reduce the wire cost and also it is easy to handle.

First of all, lets get to know what is this wireless technology in the first place?

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What is wireless?

Basically, wireless is a way to transfer signals without any wires or optic fibers. Frequently, the term wireless, mention to wireless communication. This is the way to communicate or transfer data or information between two devices without wires.

Types of wireless network?

Let’s get to know about all this wireless network in short language.

  1. Wide Area Network (WWAN)
The name already suggests us that this wireless network covers over a wide area. This is pull off by wirelessly connecting coverage cells to give services to an inflate geographical location. 
WWAN is commonly used to serve to the smartphone market through cellular service providers. However, to use this wireless network, special WAN cards are to be installed in the devices.

This service is different from the wifi service we use in our smart-phone or other devices.

Because, with this wifi settings any individual can enjoy wireless services through any hotspot. However, with the WWAN, specific handheld devices need to be particularly provisioned to obtain access to any service provider’s network.

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2.   Local Area Network (WLAN)

Wireless local area network is a use as a wireless distribution method for multiple devices. It is used very high frequency radio waves and sometimes includes as an access point to the internet also. A WLAN is let users to walk around the coverage area, such as home, office or other places, while maintaining a network connection.

Also, it is sometimes know as local area wireless network (LAWN)

3.   Personal Area Network (WPAN)

Wireless personal area network are used to transfer data or information over small distance among the private participants groups. Unlike a WLAN, a connection made with a WPAN includes a little or no architecture or any direct connectivity to the world outside the link.

Additionally, WPAN allows small, power-efficient, reasonable solution to be included in the wide range of devices.

4. Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN)

WMAN is a type of Metropolitan Area Network and it’s connectivity is wireless. Although, it is one of type a wireless network, which has a coverage area larger than the entire city. Moreover, it also covers an area, which is larger than the wireless area network (WLAN) but smaller than the wireless wide area network (WWAN). WMAN is connection can be point to point or point to multiple connection

Further, A WMAN is mostly controled by a single organization like an internet service provider, government entity, or any other large corporation. In this case, the user has to haul the authorized access from the providers to use WMAN as the access is confined only to the authorized users/subscribers.

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5.   Wireless Ad Hoc Network

A wireless ad hoc network (WANET) is a type of local area network (LAN) that is built unprompted to enable two or more wireless devices to be connected to each other without requiring typical network infrastructure material, such as a wireless router or access point.

6.   Hybrid Topology Network

Hybrid topology is an similarity of two or more basic network topologies, each of which contains its own nodes. The resulting interconnection allows the nodes in a given basic topology to communicate with other nodes in the same basic topology as well as those in other basic topologies within the hybrid topology. Advantages of a hybrid network include increased flexibility as new basic topologies can easily be added or existing ones removed and increased fault tolerance.

Now, we have to know in which field this wireless technology used most?

Where is wireless technology used in modern era?

Normally, we use this wireless network to transmit Data or information. However, the wireless network works in one direction such as radio or TV broadcasting and two direction such as data transfer where one organization acts as a transmitter and other as a receiver.

Moreover, we used satellites, mobile network such as 3G, 4G or latest 5G as the intermediate points which help to communicate between transmitter and receiver.

How wireless communication takes place?

First of all, we need data to communication between two devices without wire. This data is transport using electromagnetic waves.

Now the questions come in our mind “How can we make signals to be sent over wireless?”. The first thing we need is a transmitter, where an oscillator brings out periodic wave. This signal communicated through wires of the device up to antenna. Moreover, considering antenna is a conductor, electric current go forward to the end of the antenna. Now, the antenna discharged the alternating current as an electromagnetic wave. This is where wireless begin i.e. antenna convert electric current in to waves.

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Frequency of the signal

Frequency of the signal depending on how fast signals from the oscillators behaves, output waves have different frequencies. Also, these frequencies used for different subjects. We called these frequencies a spectrum. Spectrum is a seperated into areas of specific usage. Example, radio-navigation, radio-location, broadcasting, mobile communication, ISM band satellites, space research and many others. Government authorities, like FCC, are responsible for assigning frequency ranges for specific purpose.

How signals travel?

A signal generally does not go straight to the receiver after being transmit. The antenna discharged the signal in random directions. Waves can throw back from buildings, diffract on sharp edges or scatter on small objects and still reach the receiver. On their direction, waves tolerate different attenuation and delay. Receiver represent all of them as a combined signal. When there is more than one route between transmitter and receiver, we call such channel a multipath channel.

Inside transmitter

We know, that receiver must deal with the distorted and mixed signal to decode the data. This is not a trivial task since captured signal contains a big amount of unwanted components. To make this task easier we take some additional steps in the transmitter. Before sending user data, transmitter is performs encoding. This operation appends additional bits to the message, which makes data recovery in receiver easier. After encoding bits are mapped onto symbols, modulated and passed to the antenna.

Advantages of Wireless Communication

Following are the advantage of the wireless communication technology, Wireless Networking and Wireless Systems over Wired Communication like Cost, Mobility, Ease of Installation, and Reliability etc.

Cost

The cost of fixing wires, cables and other infrastructure is remove in wireless communication and hence reduce the overall cost of the system compared to wired communication system. Installing wired network in building, digging up the Earth to lay the cables and running those wires across the streets is very difficult, costly and time consuming job.

In historical buildings, drilling holes for cables is not a best idea as it destroys the integrity and importance of the building. Also, in older buildings with no dedicated lines for communication, wireless communication like Wi-Fi or Wireless LAN is the only option.

Mobility

As mentioned earlier, mobility is the main advantage of wireless communication system. It offers the freedom to move around while still connected to network.

Ease of Installation

The setup and installation of wireless communication network’s equipment and infrastructure is very easy as we need not worry about the hassle of cables. Also, the time required to setup a wireless system like a Wi-Fi network for example, is very less when compared to setting up a full cabled network.

Reliability

Since there are no cables and wires involve in wireless communication, there is no chance of communication failure due to damage of these cables, which may be cause by environmental conditions, cable splice and natural diminution of metallic conductors.

Disaster Recovery

In case of accidents due to fire, floods or other disasters, the loss of communication infrastructure in wireless communication system can be minimal.

Disadvantages of Wireless Communication

Nonetheless, wireless communication has a number of advantages over wired communication, there are a some disadvantages as well. The most concerning disadvantages are Interference, Security and Health.

Interference

Wireless Communication systems use open space as the medium for transmitting signals. As a result, there is a huge chance that radio signals from one wireless communication system or network might interfere with other signals.

The best example is Bluetooth and Wi-Fi (WLAN). Both these technologies use the 2.4GHz frequency for communication and when both of these devices are active at the same time, there is a chance of interference.

Security

One of the main analysis of wireless communication is Security of the data. Since the signals are transmit in open space, it is possible that an thief or hacker can cut off the signals and copy sensitive information.

Health Concerns

Continuous submission to any type of radiation can be dangerous. Even though the levels of RF energy that can cause the damage are not accurately establish, it is instruct to avoid RF radiation to the maximum.

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